Alim Chirov, graduate of the Institute of mechanical engineering and mechatronics in the field of training "Engineering and technological support of machine engineering industry". Now he is studying at the 1st year of master's program at Reshetnev University.

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In 2015, entrance exams were held in Bishkek for admission to Reshetnev University.

"I understood that having entered a Russian University, I would get a decent education and I was not mistaken in this", Alim said.

He entered the specialty "Mechatronics and Robotics". The University has given opportunities to realize himself in the research area. During his undergraduate studies, Alim wrote 14 scientific articles that gave him a chance to apply for various scholarships.

One of the main reasons why Alim remained in the master's program is a strong teaching staff:

"I can say with confidence that these people know their job. I can learn a lot from them. This is one of the reasons why I stayed in the master's program".

Alim thinks the main advantage of the Institute of mechanical engineering and mechatronics is the practice for students. Students are trained in leading enterprises of Krasnoyarsk. Alim had a practice at resource center "Energia" , where he designed combat robots. Production practice took place in the resource center "Space vehicles and systems", where he got acquainted with production, learned to work on machines, and was given the opportunity to learn how to control the KUKA robot


Reshetnev University and the International Cooperation Department congratulate Alim on successful studies and wish him success in the future!

 

 

Polymers are a class of chemicals, which definitely can be called the crown of evolution of the inanimate world. These high molecular weight compounds have an extraordinary variety in the structure of polymer chains that gives them a set of diverse properties. That makes them widely used in different fields: clothes, household appliances, computers, and cars - all this and many other things largely consist of the materials obtained by the synthesis of oil products.

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Currently, the synthetic polymers are actively applied as construction materials to manufacture various products, equipment for general and special purposes, and the technology of their production is constantly being improved.

The dynamic development of polymer material science lead to discovering a polymer unique property giving the right to classify them as “smart” materials. The property describes the ability to “memorize” a temporary form and restore the original form because of external influences; therefore, it is called the shape memory effect (SME).

Using such materials opens up new horizons for humankind in various fields of science and technology. In medicine, specialists consider them as tools for minimally invasive surgery, targeted delivery of drugs, and the material to manufacture “smart” prostheses. In aerospace field, SME polymer can be used to produce elements of transformable structures with the possibility of compact packaging in a temporary (transportation) form on Earth and the restoration of the original (operation) form in outer space when heated.

At the Reshetnev University, the researchers have been developing ground and space structures made of polymer composite materials. However, every day is changing the requirements to such structures; meeting the requirements is impossible using only finished materials. In this regard, interest arose in the development of new materials to produce up-to-date structures, including those with SME. This resulted in creating the scientific laboratory “Smart Materials and Structures”; the laboratory won the competition of the RF Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2020.

Now the new laboratory based on the Spacecraft and Systems Resource Sharing Center provides large-scale studies of polymer and composite SME materials under the supervision of associate scientist Taisia Aleksandrovna Shalygina. It is planned to develop a shape memory effect material with multiple forms and with the possibility of a non-contact initiation method. Creating multi-level transformations of the material will give a chance to deal with some challenges of the current science and technology.

Another promising area of the research is to develop a material with reversible shape memory effect. When changing external influences, such material is capable of reversibly changing its shape without prior programming. Therefore, it is possible to expand the horizons of the practical application of SME polymers, for example, using them to create an airplane wing with a changing geometry or micro- and -macromechanical systems for various purposes.

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In 2019, Taisia Shalygina won a prestigious grant by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to realize project № 19-33-90166 “Investigating interfacial phenomena at the polymer-polymer and polymer-filler interfaces in the composite material structure having a triple shape memory effect and modified with silicon carbide particles”. The project was one of the best basic research projects proposed by the young post-graduate researchers.

The scientific laboratory "Smart Materials and Structures" is the only scientific laboratory in Krasnoyarsk, whose employees have the opportunity to study SME polymers comprehensively. In Russia there are laboratories of the same approach in Kazan and Moscow, there are also similar laboratories in Japan, China, the USA, and Germany. A. Lendlein from the Faculty of Science, the Institute for Biochemistry and Biology at the University of Potsdam, H. Tobushi from the Technological Institute (Aichi) in Japan, Kaojin Wang from the South China University of Technology supervise the research teams studying shape memory effect. Two years ago, the Reshetnev University opened project-oriented Master's program “Technology to manufacture products from polymer composite materials”. Due to this, the Krasnoyarsk and other students have a unique opportunity to do their research using the up-to-date equipment. The Master students will be able to develop their research papers demonstrating serious scientific and practical outcomes based on the experiment results.

Further, Master students will reach a fundamentally new world level of research due to their work. Currently, every student of the Reshetnev University obtains a real chance to study the polymer material science.

The Hero of Russia, pilot-cosmonaut Alexander Ivanovich Lazutkin pointed out the significance of the shape memory polymers for space exploration: “Since the first polymers were synthesized, researchers have been heavily reliant on them. Further, they really could have substituted the majority of traditional materials. Polymers and polymer composites have been advancing until the current moment. Discovering the polymer shape memory effect has given the perspectives for the challenges of developing lightweight transformable structures for the space exploration purpose. Space exploration based on smart composites is a new reality”.

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The underwater world of the local reservoirs is a lacuna for the majority of residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Many of them have only a general idea about hydrology, both in the region and in the city of Krasnoyarsk. And the information about the depth of the Yenisei near Krasnoyarsk which does not exceed 4-5 meters is very surprising! Hundreds of small country lakes and small rivers, citizens of Krasnoyarsk pass along every day, are underexplored in hydrographic terms. A great deal of undiscovered and unknown is around us!

Of course, the reservoirs of Siberia are not populated by colorful and diverse flora and fauna. Our rivers, lakes and reservoirs cannot compete with the tropical seas. However, Siberian nature is exclusive. Unique are the channels of the Sayan Mountain Rivers with their bizarre underwater cliffs polished by the purest mountain waters. The Arctic expanses of the Yenisei are unique, which hundreds of kilometers before flowing into the Kara Sea takes on the features of a sea reservoir, where the river spills dozens of kilometers, and the opposite shore is not visible, and storm waves even pose a serious threat to shipping.

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 Lower Yenisei 

The Yenisei and its tributaries have long been developed in a navigable way. Numerous hydraulic structures were built on the river, countless equipment and vehicles went under the water, as a result of the construction of hydroelectric power stations, dozens of villages were flooded. Exploration of the region extended along the rivers. The most important here was the Northern Sea Route. Due to its favorable hydrographic features, the Yenisei allows passing ships far upstream (ships with low draft can rise to the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric station). The pages of the navigation history on the Yenisei are filled with the most striking events - from sailing Kochi and vessels of the Great Northern Expedition, organized by Peter the Great, to the first commercial passages of the XIX century and key episodes in the development of the Soviet Arctic.

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Sea ship "Victor Astafiev" in the middle reaches of the Yenisei 

The Great Patriotic War did not leave out the Yenisei River. The events of 1942 and the attack of the German cruiser “Admiral Scheer” on the port of Dixon, as well as other heroic episodes, are well known. The activity of German submarines remained in the Yenisei Gulf until 1944. Civilian ships were killed on enemy mines, crews of submarines made landings in a number of settlements located on the shores of the gulf. In addition to the remote northern regions, echoes of the war can be found in the Krasnoyarsk waters of the Yenisei. For example, in the area of ​​the railway bridge, there is a disabled during the Great Patriotic War airplane which was delivered to the Soviet Union as part of the US land-lease program. All this is of great historical interest.

The Reshetnev University * project on a comprehensive study of the underwater world of the Krasnoyarsk Territory began with a historical study. Now it is implemented jointly by three institutes - the Institute for Space Research and High Technology, the Institute of Social Engineering and the Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications. Scientists are trying to answer the question - what is there, under water? The study of the water area of the Yenisei River, its tributaries, as well as the river systems of other river basins (Ob’, Pyasina), lakes is of great scientific interest.

Yenisei Siberia through the Northern Sea Route and its river section - the Yenisei River, maintained trade relations with the outside world long before the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. This is an important milestone in the history of the development of the Northern Sea Route! In 2015–2016, 2018–2019 expeditions were conducted to the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, during which the locations of a number of sunken ships were established, including the English ship “Thames”, which first reached the mouth of the Kureyka River with a cargo of English goods. In the summer of 1878 the ship sank. The results of our scientists' research on this topic were published by the University of Cambridge Publishing **. 

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Expedition to the Arctic

The Reshetnev University has one of the best side-scan sonar in the region, allowing you to capture the bottom in the highest detail. The vast experience of the project team with sonar equipment was appreciated by both state hydrographic enterprises and private diving companies. So, in the autumn of last year, exploration works were carried out in the middle of the Yenisei area in order to identify objects that impede navigation. Objects previously unknown to the hydrographic service were found, including a large non-self-propelled vessel.

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Sunken vessel 

In addition, a series of field trips to the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir was made in order to examine the location of the underwater power cable. The University staff introduced the representatives of industrial partners with the available sonar instruments and existing software. Based on these recommendations, the company purchased side-scan sonar operating at a frequency of 450 GHz and allowing visualization of the bottom at depths of more than one hundred meters. During the next trip satisfactory images of the bottom of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir were obtained.

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The process of shooting the bottom of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir

The project team successfully collaborates with the Siberian Federal University and the Krasnoyarsk Territory branch of the Russian Geographical Society. Among promising short-term projects is a survey of the Abakan Canal to identify previously unknown anthropogenic objects, some of which have potential historical value. This study is still interesting as a park-museum for the development of the Krasnoyarsk North will be created on Molokov Island. Among the exhibits will be objects related to the history of polar aviation. There was a seaport on the island in the 1930–1940s, from where air communication with the northern settlements was organized. Several aircraft crashed and sank in the lower head of the island area. Their discovery will help to replenish knowledge of the important history of the development of the Krasnoyarsk polar aviation. The project team participates in hydrographic work in the Yenisei North under the grant of the Russian Federation President.

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Acoustic image from a depth of 87 meters.

Another achievement of the team was the creation of a prototype of an underwater robot, which in the near future will allow you to take pictures and videos of underwater objects. The data collected and processed using high-performance computing equipment will be put into a single geographic information system.

 

* Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology

 

** Goncharov, A., & Orel, I. (2020). Thames meets the Enisei: Captain Joseph Wiggins’s expedition to the Kara Sea and Enisei, 1876–1877. Polar Record, 1-16. DOI:10.1017/S0032247420000066 // https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/polar-record/article/thames-meets-the-enisei-captain-joseph-wigginss-expedition-to-the-kara-sea-and-enisei-18761877/B42AB346D09605B75CF0751F2888BDE3

05.21.2020 Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology hosted the XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern Trends in the Teaching of Foreign Languages ​​in a Non-Language University".

The title of the conference is relevant, as it reflects the reality of the current situation not only in Russia, but also in the world. The international committee of the conference included experts from Russia, New Zealand, China, Lebanon and the UK.
Despite the coronavirus pandemic, the conference was successfully held and was implemented on-line. Colleagues from different parts of the world addressed with a welcoming video message to the conference participants: Ashley Whitfield (Great Britain), Salva Saad (Lebanon), Pedro Martin Ramirez Rivera (Italy).

The conference was attended not only by educators of the foreign language department for business students and foreign language department for technical students of the Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science & Technology, but also participants from other Russian universities.

The conference was devoted to a discussion of theoretical and practical problems, promising trends in teaching foreign languages at a technical university, aimed at improving the teaching of foreign languages to students and graduate students of non-linguistic specialties in the face of external challenges dictated by COVID-19.

Pedro Ramrez

Pedro Martin Ramirez Rivera (Italy)

”...This crisis-opportunity provoked by COVID-19 has radically changed the way we learn, teach, and engage with our students and colleagues. Like in many sectors, we see the disruption in universities as an opportunity to re-examine several aspects, in which is the purpose and intended impact of internationalization on teaching and learning”.

This year, special attention was paid to the problems of the internationalization of higher education, cross-cultural communication.

KHAIRALLAH SALWA

Salva Saad (Lebanon), an expert in international negotiations

“...We all work in intercultural settings, meaning that at any time we could be speaking or writing to someone who was born in another country i.e. in a different culture. In this context, we are not talking about improving the grammar and vocabulary skills only but also focusing on an often overlooked aspect of international communication, cultural competency. Some people sometimes forget that good communication is not a simple correct translation of words; it is the integration of language and culture that makes communication efficient “.

For the first time at the conference, the issue of inclusive education of people with disabilities in the context of the analysis of pedagogical technologies for teaching foreign languages was raised.

Following the results of the conference, the publication of the collection is planned. Works will be posted in the e-library system. Video greetings from conference participants and a collection of papers will be posted on the conference website https://moderntrends.sibsau.ru/.

 

In May 20, 2020, Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology hosted the XIX international scientific conference "Youth. Society. Modern Science, Technology and Innovation" for bachelors, masters, postgraduates and young scientists. The published electronic collection of conference materials will be indexed by the Russian index of citation and located in E-library. The 2 departments, Technical foreign language and Business foreign language, organized the conference.

This year's conference was attended by 115 participants from Russia, Austria, China and India. Despite the impossibility of personal participation in the sessions of the sections, the participants presented video reports, from which the winners of the conference were selected. There were 28 video reports for 4 workshops. The winners of each section were awarded with diplomas.

The International scientific conference "Youth. Society. Modern Science, Technology and Innovation" is held annually to integrate higher education and basic science, attract bachelors, specialists, masters, and postgraduates to discuss and solve current problems, assist in the creation of international research teams of young researchers and the development of their cooperation. The reports presented at the conference contain the results of their own research of a theoretical and experimental nature.

We would be glad to greet you at our conference next year!

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Marina Savelyeva,

Head of Department of Foreign Languages for Engineering Students

"… This year the conference gives young researchers the floor for the 19-th time. Our conference is 19, it means that the event has become as mature as many of you, however, it is still young and it is developing. Every year we, as the conference organizers, could feel that your research and presentations contain new ideas reflecting the spirit of science. Fortunately, we could state the participants demonstrate their improving skills and really profound research, therefore, the conference meets its mission and tasks.

We consider our every year conference to be a useful tradition; paraphrasing Jonah Goldberg a bit, we could say “the traditions grow cultures and generations”. We wish you follow right traditions and become successful researchers! "

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Natalia Shumakova,

Head of Department of Foreign languages for Business Students

"…This year we conduct our annual international conference in challenging conditions caused by external reasons as humanity experiences an important period now. It’s substantial to emphasize the importance of maintaining a high level of scientific international cooperation in the conditions of isolation. A current situation addresses the problem of integrating faculty and students into the global educational and research environment. Universities globally are challenged both to keep a high level of education and continue cross-cultural scientific communication.

We are pleased to present the results of your scientific research in this edited volume of works. We truly believe that your participation in the conference is a successful investment in a bank of your soft skills and professional qualifications necessary for your future market competitiveness. "

(Official conference site: https://flcys.sibsau.ru/)

The coronavirus pandemic has affected both the global economy and the new challenges that have emerged in the fields of education, science and international cooperation. However, the crisis can also be considered as a condition encouraging the search for and implementation of the new opportunities. Realizing the importance of developing international cooperation, Reshetnev University and our long-standing partner, the University of Maribor (Maribor, Slovenia), organized a joint distance professional development course for students and teachers. Thus, students and staff of the University had an opportunity to listen to a distance course of lectures "Management and Control in Logistics, Transport, and Supply Chain Management: Models, Methods, and Applications" of Dejan Dragan, a Professor of the Department of Quantitative Modeling in Logistics of the Faculty of Logistics of University of Maribor within a month.

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Dejan Dragan,  Professor of the Department of Quantitative Modeling in Logistics of the Faculty of Logistics of University of Maribor

 After listening to lectures, completing individual tasks and passing the exam, participants will receive new modern knowledge and skills, and at the same time a certificate of professional development upon completion of the courses. Furthermore, parties agreed in doing a joint research work on "Self-Adapted Meta-heuristics for automated generation of machine learning tools for modeling of complex dependencies and forecasting: Applications in the real and public sector considering the COVID-19 pandemic shocks".

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Eugene S. Semenkin, Professor of the Department of System Analysis and Operations Research, a scientific supervisor of the Siberian Institute of Applied System Analysis named after A.N. Antamoshkin

"...Our universities have been cooperating for more than ten years, and this cooperation keeps growing. It has become a tradition for professors of the University of Maribor to visit us giving the lectures to students and conducting professional development courses for teachers. During the last 5 years we have been cooperating most closely in the field of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of things. Beside the academic activities, 3 joint research projects have already been completed and two more are currently being implemented with the support of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts and grants of the President of the Russian Federation. The visit of Slovenian colleagues is not yet possible at the present but we are using new options. The expanded research and academic activities to such an interesting area as the management of global logistics systems opens up the new opportunities for the development of cooperation between our universities. Our Slovenian colleagues are experts in mathematical modeling of such systems, including their optimization. They are interested in applying modern powerful optimization and intelligent (Machine Learning) technologies in this area. However, this usually requires experts in the relevant fields, which significantly hinders research. For our part, we develop and apply self-adjusting technologies of such a kind that greatly facilitates their use by scientists without the appropriate expert knowledge since algorithms automatically adapt to the task being solved without human participation. This results in a synergistic effect. The cooperation between the universities continues and develops ".


FORESTS FALL SICK WITHOUT FIRES

Forest is a key factor in maintaining a favorable environment for people's lives, social and economic development of the state. In Russia, forests occupy half of the country's territory, and this is a quarter of the world's forest cover.

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It is believed that one of the main causes of forest death is forest fires. Only in this country, from ten to thirty thousand of them are registered annually. According to reports of the Federal Aviation Safety Agency “Avialesohrana”, as of May 6 this year, 43 forest fires were operating on the territory of the Russian Federation on an area of 44,181 hectare, more than the whole of Krasnoyarsk!

Fires cause tremendous damage - vegetation, animals, people die. It is impossible to overestimate the environmental consequences: a huge amount of polluting particles, gases, organic compounds and other substances harmful to the environment enters the atmosphere. The level of air pollution increases, smoke spreads over hundreds of kilometers, which is bad for people's health. In 2019, when a wave of fires passed around the world, the American actor Leonardo DiCaprio commented on this problem on his Instagram: “The Arctic Circle suffers from a huge number of forest fires. The foci in Greenland, Siberia and Alaska are smoking, and this can be seen from space. The World Meteorological Organization stated that these fires released as much carbon dioxide (CO2) in a month as all of Sweden in a year.” (https://www.instagram.com/p/B0jPoPzFNr0/?utm_source=ig_embed).

It is practically impossible to put out the fire, which covers hundreds of hectares of forest. You can only stop it, limit it, keep the fire on, and try to eliminate the causes of its occurrence.

But there is another side to forest fires. The fact is that all the ecosystems of our planet have evolved in the presence of fire. Each community of plants and trees, each species individually for millennia developed their own adaptation mechanisms and adapted to the fire. For example, Siberian pine has a thick bark, a deep root system, a trunk highly purified from branches, so that the flame does not spread into the crown.

Another example is reforestation. Birch and aspen, which quickly die from fire, and seemingly not at all adapted to fires, will be the first to occupy the liberated territory. It seems that the tree died, but a root shoot develops from a stump of birch, a root has come off from an aspen, it has opened, has gone outside, therefore the shoot germinates quickly! The ability to form offspring from sleeping buds on the roots, rapid rooting, has the initial “settlement” of the burned-out forest with these species. And the seeds of these rocks are spread over long distances, thereby contributing to the large-scale settlement of the "liberated" territories.

Why do forests need fires? On the one hand, forests die during fires, and on the other, fires can be considered as an important natural factor in the formation and renewal of plant communities. Fires prevent the spread of harmful organisms - insects, fungi; they cleanse the forest from clutter, etc. It is interesting that almost all larch and pine virgin forests of the taiga zone were formed on forest burns

Fire suitability of the forest system can be characterized through the “fire regime of the territory” and assessed by two parameters - the inter-fire interval and the inherent burning rate. For example, pine stands are relatively easy to tolerate grassroots runaway fires. So, with a quick spring fire, last year's dry grass is burned, the fire does not go deep into the moist layer of the dry litter. The combustion rate is usually low, the stand is slightly damaged. Subsequently, young shoots appear, the yield of mushrooms and berries increases. Such fires occur in pine trees on average once every 25-45 years. If in such a forest there has been no fire for more than fifty years, the forest begins to hurt, its clutter leads to more severe mounted fires, when the fire spreads to the crowns of trees.

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Of course, not every fire becomes a blessing to the forest. Many conditions must coincide: climate, type of ecosystem, topography, intensity and duration of burning, desired inter-fire interval. Otherwise, the fire leads to disastrous consequences. “Fire needs to be taken very seriously and responsibly. Now they can do harm even in cases that were previously considered safe. Plantations are lost, the burning interval of which is within the framework of the historically established fire regime and low intensity. The reason is climate warming and therefore drier soils. In addition, we continue the pioneer development of forests, exploring forests further north. Therefore, it is important to develop a system for monitoring forest fires and early response, to study the influence of various factors on the fire regime, to improve fire fighting and fire prevention technologies, ”said Sergey V. Verkhovets, Director of the Institute of Forest Technologies of Reshetnev University *. “That is why at our university we are actively developing such a field of science as forest pyrology, i.e. science of forest fires. We actively interact with Russian and foreign colleagues. Now the system of regional forest fire centers and Aviation Forest protection divisions is intensively developing, for which we train qualified personnel.”

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Sergey V. Verkhovets, Director of the Institute of Forest Technologies of Reshetnev University *

 

* Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science  and Technology

 Dear international students!

As you may already know, in view of the measures to minimize the risk of new coronavirus infection (Covid-19), Reshetnev university had to shift to distance learning starting from March 17.

Starting from May 12 (Tuesday), Reshetnev university resumes distance learning. Classes in the distance learning format will continue in accordance with the curriculum and the established schedule. Please, stay in touch with your professors, Directorate of your Institute and  International Cooperation Department.

International Cooperation Department work remotely and remain in constant contact with you by vk.com(VKontakte) or e-mail. You can always contact them if you have any questions or difficulties in connection with the educational process, being on the university campus or taking the necessary precautions against the spread of coronavirus infection.

Please, mind the working hours:

Monday: 09-00 - 18-00

Tuesday: 09-00 - 18-00

Wednesday: 09-00 - 18-00

Thursday: 09-00 - 18-00

Friday: 09-00 - 18-00

Staying on-campus

Please note that till May 31, in accordance with the Decree of the Governor, no one should leave home / place of residence, irrespective of age, with the exception of the following cases: (1) to seek emergency (urgent) medical care or in the event of another direct threat to their lives or health; (2) to walk to the nearest available food store,  pharmacy, bank or communications store, or (3) to take out the garbage when necessary.

Being in the street, in grocery stores or any other public places (except when using a taxi), people should keep a minimum of 1.5 meters distance from each other (social distancing).We ask you to stay home/in dorms and take good care of yourself, your family members or roommates and other people nearby.

If you have any questions regarding non-academic issues, or you feel lonely and need support, please contact Reshetnev university International Students Club in the VKontakte group.

Visa and registration

You can stay in the dormitory of Reshetnev university until the formal completion of studies at university, as it was indicated in the order for your admission. You will continue receiving full support from the staff of International Cooperation Department on issues related to your stay in the Russian Federation, such as registration, visa extension, and cases of emergency.

We carefully day after day monitor Russian authorities’ recommendations regarding the necessary measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection, and will keep you informed as soon as a change occurs. In this difficult situation, you can be sure that Reshetnev university will provide you the necessary assistance.

Keep in touch with the International Cooperation Department representatives, professors and International Students Club volunteers.

Please, stay home and take care of yourself!

 

 

 

 

 

 

What causes the death of forests in the Siberian region? This question is increasingly being asked by residents and guests of the region. It would seem that the answer lies on the surface. There are such anthropogenic factors as fires, deforestation and impact of industrial emissions. But is it so obvious? What do we know about the forest ecosystem and the processes that affect it?

Global warming is a topic that has become popular again thanks to the Swedish schoolgirl Greta Thunberg, touched on the Siberian forest. One of the scientists' predictions is that due to warming the forest area will decrease, as there will be not enough water for coniferous trees. With climate change, forest-steppe and steppe will take the place of taiga, and fragments of deserts will appear on the border between Tyva and Mongolia. This forecast is based on climate model calculations until the end of this century.

And another unfavorable scenario is when, due to warming, new insect pests, which previously preferred more comfortable climate zones, enter Siberia. Higher temperatures and lower humidity are favourable factors for the development of many insect species. A warm climate will contribute to their increased reproduction, which means they will need new food supplies. Forestry already suffers huge losses from harmful insect activity.

Mass reproduction of insect pests leads to the fall of leaves and conifers and subsequently to the destruction of forest areas, causing huge economic and environmental damage. According to Federal Service Roslesozaschita (Russian forest protection center) in 2019 mass outbreaks of pests in the Russian forest stock are marked on the area equal to almost three million hectares. For comparison, it is a territory equal to a dozen medium-sized European states.

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Hotspots of mass reproduction of pests in Siberian forests (photo of the Federal Service Roslesozaschita (Russian forest protection center)

Over the last hundred years, ten outbreaks of mass reproduction of the Siberian silkworm, the most dangerous pest for Siberian forests, have occurred in Krasnoyarsk region. Due to warming, silkworm infestations are gradually moving north to Siberia, where they did not exist in the past. Currently, the area affected is more than one million hectares. The caterpillars completely eat the coniferous trees, and after such an invasion the trees can no longer be saved. In addition, due to dryness, the area affected by silkworm is extremely fire-hazardous.

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Siberian silkworm caterpillar (photo of the Federal Service Roslesozaschita (Russian forest protection center)

It should be noted that plantations weakened by the Siberian silkworm are a good forage base for trunk pests, including Monochamus sutor that is another dangerous insect for dark coniferous forests, in particular fir stands.

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Polygraphus proximus Blandford (bark beetle)(photo of the Federal Service Roslesozaschita (Russian forest protection center)

In addition, we observe the "intervention" of new pests that were not present in Siberia before, for example, Polygraphus proximus Blandford (bark beetle). The dynamics of the Polygraphus proximus Blandford is a prime example of insect migration due to climate change. This beetle was first discovered in Siberia in 2008 in Tomsk region. He came to us from the Far East along Trans-Siberian Railway and struck fir forests in several regions at once, including Krasnoyarsk region. Now the total area of forests damaged by the Polygraphus proximus Blandford is more than half a million hectares. The beetle is difficult to fight because the Polygraphus is under the bark, and external treatments do not produce results. An infected tree dies in two to three years. So far, the only way to prevent the insect from spreading is to cut down trees infected by the pest. At the breeding sites of bark beetles there is a decrease in productivity of dark coniferous forests, which adversely affects the ecology of the area as a whole.

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Forest areas affected by Dendrolimus sibiricus and Polygraphus proximus Blandford (photo of the Federal Service Roslesozaschita (Russian forest protection center), Krasnoyarsk region)

Based on this situation, there is an urgent need to find a solution and suppress the pest outbreaks. One of the methods of forest protection is biological. It is based on the use of living organisms against pests - their natural enemies (parasites, predators, pathogens, and others). Biological methods of control have advantages over chemical (poisoning): they do not pollute the environment, while restraining the growth of pests.

Scientists from the Institute of Forestry Technologies at Reshetnev University* have created a scientific laboratory to find solutions to this situation within the framework of the project Fundamentals of forest protection from entomo- and fittings pests in Siberia.

The main tasks of the laboratory are to increase the efficiency of the system for monitoring the growth of Siberian forest pest populations, early detection of critical moments, and development of preventive measures to control them. New biological methods of control with the use of natural enemies, such as microorganisms, will quickly and timely localize and suppress pest outbreaks. Scientists will prepare proposals to improve the sustainability of forests for implementation into the Russian forestry system. These innovations will not only reduce environmental and economic loss from insect pests, but also improve the effectiveness of forest protection measures.

Forest protection is the protection of the human environment. The forest guarantees social development and economic stability, and ensures environmental well-being. As a result of global warming, forest problems are becoming increasingly complex: threats of forest damage from fires, pests and diseases, unsustainable logging and other factors. All this requires not only the attention of specialists who have the experience and resources to solve these tasks, but also each of us.

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 "We have three years left, and if we do not take any steps now, there will be no fir left in Siberia" - says Pavel. V. Mikhailov, the head of the scientific Forest Protection laboratory of Reshetnev University.

 

*Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology

Reshetnev University * makes space accessible

Is space exploration as an integral and conventional part of every-day life of the mankind a science fiction or reality? The mystery of the Space attracts many romantics, dreamers, and inventors. Back in the middle of the last century, people were sure that they would conquer the solar system, galaxy, and the universe. Despite the fact that since the flight of Yuri Gagarin less than 600 people have visited the Space, and the planet colonization is most likely in the distant future, everyone can take their own step to make this perspective a little closer. How can it happen? The Reshetnev University scientists answer the question. They are the University scientists who are creating small spacecraft of the CubeSat class.

Small spacecraft philosophy. Conventional spacecraft (SC) are often large and heavy. This is due to the tasks they deal with, which require high energy capabilities and large equipment. Such spacecraft in some cases can weigh several tons.

Small satellites belong to spacecraft weighing less than 500 kg. Advances in miniaturization of electronics have reduced the size and mass of many on-board systems, opening the way for miniaturizing spacecraft. The concept of small spacecraft, developed over the past 15-20 years, has become so widespread that many researchers have stated a new philosophy of designing small spacecraft, which differs significantly from the design methodology of conventional satellites.

Reasonable sufficiency in everything. The main idea of the philosophy of small spacecraft implies reasonable sufficiency in every phase to realize a successful mission. Mission goals should be specific and not overloaded with optional tasks. The space mission duration is precisely determined and does not imply an increase in length. Technical solutions laid down during satellite design (materials, structure, electronic component base, and others) should ensure an absolute fulfillment of the space mission tasks, but only for the planned period of spacecraft operation.

Minimum cost to achieve the result. Small spacecraft must be constructed quickly and have low cost. Mission objectives are compared with the cost amount. Costs should be minimal to achieve the desired result. Tasks to realize by small spacecraft should require much less money (than usual ones in the space industry) for design, launch, and operation of spacecraft in orbit. With proficient risk management, it is possible to organize a greater number of flights with time-dependent overlap and greater regularity, and thereby, ensure the continuity of the services provided to the space system users.

Proven commercial solutions. Low costs and high development speed is achieved primarily through the use of affordable and proven commercial solutions and components instead of excessively reliable and expensive components specially designed for space. Used commercial components, for example, commercial microcontroller microcircuits, memory, network interfaces and others, meet the current level of functionality while minimizing power consumption and size. Their low reliability is compensated by low orbits, where small satellites operate, and where the impact of the destructive factors of outer space is insignificant, and also by a short term of their active operational life at an orbit.

CubeSats as the brightest example of the small spacecraft. CubeSats fully comply with the small spacecraft concept, but along with their participation in the movement of small spacecraft, elements of standardization and unification are introduced and worldwide recognized.

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Figure 1 – Cubsats launched from the International Space Station (NASA photo)

A small spacecraft of the CubeSat type has got standardized dimensions and mass: a cube with a 10 cm edge and a mass of not more than 1 kg. This is a basic unit - 1U. CubeSat can have bigger dimensions, but they have to be a multiple of 1U: 1U, 2U, 3U, 6U. (Figure 1) The increase in dimensions allows locating more equipment or bulky devices.

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Figure 2 – Dimension picture.

Why do engineers need standardization? Usually launching a satellite is a minefield for developers. In case of CubeSat, a special launch container has been developed to carry up to three 1U devices or one 3U device. Standardization of the spacecraft dimensions and the development of a single launch device located in the launch vehicle, significantly reduce the number of issues to be solved in the anticipation of the launch.

Spacecraft structure. The satellite body is usually made of aluminum alloy and it is a frame inside which the devices are placed. The internal volume is not sealed, since up-to-date electronic components can operate in vacuum, temperature ratio and other conditions.

Inside there are modules of subsystems, which are usually represented by electronic circuit boards integrated into a stack (a rack, in simple words). On the outer faces of the body, there are solar panels that provide the device with energy. The device has antennas and a communications system with a ground control station that operate in the amateur radio frequency range, which greatly facilitates obtaining permission to use radio communications to control the spacecraft.

 scheme

Figure 3 – CubeSat Structure (Darbali-Zamora, Rachid & Cobo Yepes, Nicolas & Ortiz-Rivera, Eduardo & Aponte-Bezares, Erick & Rincon, Amilcar. (2018). Applying HOL/PBL to prepare undergraduate students into graduate level studies in the field of Aerospace Engineering using the Puerto Rico CubeSat project initiative. 10.1109/FIE.2018.8659049.)

The most sophisticated CubeSat system is the attitude determination and control system (ADCS). The difficulty lies in the technical performance of the system hardware devices, which must differ in minimum dimensions and power consumption for a CubeSat. The most important ability is to develop an executive control algorithm ensuring the satellite rotate to the desired position in the best way. Fig. 4 demonstrates a simplified diagram of the attitude determination and control system.

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Figure 4 – Attitude determination and control system block diagram

The required position of the device, set, for example, by a command from the ground station, is determined by the base coordinate system. The current actual angular position of the device is determined using the Sun, stars and the Earth sensors. By comparing the required and actual angular position, the position error is calculated. In order for the device to orient as required, the error must be reduced to zero.

The system controller, adhering to a certain control strategy (for example, maximizing the orientation speed, minimizing errors, minimizing the energy consumption for orientation), produces a control action on the system executive devices. Executive devices provide rotation of the spacecraft. Usually these are magnetic coils interacting with the Earth's magnetic field - the spacecraft rotates like a large compass needle. Since external forces (aerodynamic forces of atmospheric residues, the Earth’s gravitational field, solar wind, etc.) constantly impact the vehicle, its position gradually deviates from the set one. Therefore, the ADCS system works constantly in automatic mode, ensuring its required position in outer space.

To test the system algorithms, the scientists have developed a uniaxial iron bird rig to simulate the attitude determination and control system. The rig setup is suspended on a thread and rotates the platform of the vehicle around the axis of the suspension. The

control algorithms are developed in the SimInTech simulation environment. When the rig setup operates, the management controller works on a remote PC, receiving signals from real sensors and executive devices installed on the full-scale simulator of the spacecraft, therefore controlling the physical turns of the platform.

Universities are the driving force to CubeSat constructing. Actually, the CubeSat project was proposed by the university community in the USA and Japan in 1999 as a scientific and educational project. Since then, this class of spacecraft has been widely recognized in other sectors of the aerospace industry, primarily commercial, but universities still play a significant role in this project.

At Reshetnev University, the Small Spacecraft laboratory provides CubeSat constructing, designing CubeSat systems of 3U type.

Currently, several systems of the device have been manufactured: the body of the device for container launch, the on-board computer, and the engineering model of the power supply system. Other systems are under the design stage: a radio channel with the ground station, the attitude determination and control system, as well as facilities to develop the interaction of CubeSat with the ground stations, facility to test the power supply system and the attitude determination and control algorithms for the spacecraft.

Students and graduate students are involved in the development of CubeSat systems at Reshetnev University. Under the guidance of scientific supervisors, they are engaged in the development of models and software to realize spacecraft orientation and stabilization algorithms in outer space, software development for a functional facility to develop interaction between the spacecraft and a ground station, and to create a radio control channel.

It is assumed that the students’ active work of in the project will result in their interest in astronautics, will provide them with practical knowledge, and subsequently, will consolidate university graduates in the country's space industry. Therefore, simultaneously with the project realization, a scientific and educational course is created, and designed for wider audience.

The course syllabus covers the main sections related to the design and development of CubeSat: orbital motion and operating conditions of the device in outer space, the composition and description of all systems of the device, radio control of the device, CubeSat target use, including remote Earth sensing, issues of the spacecraft life cycle, as well as pre-design work, design, manufacture and launch. Therefore, the objective of the program is to give a holistic view of all stages and types of work, and tasks to be solved when designing, creating and launching small spacecraft using the example of CubeSat.

International Summer School as a platform to discuss promising areas in the field of space exploration. Now the educational program is actively developing. This year the International Summer School is planned for the first time, the school will allow participants to get acquainted with the stages of designing small spacecraft like CubeSat and its main systems, and it will also become a platform for communication of specialists involved in theoretical and practical research in this area.

Now there are hundreds of satellites in outer space, but humanity is at the very beginning of the journey. There are still many questions to answer and the most ambitious plans to realize. Although we do not have an answer to the question if the design of the "training" satellite will become a step toward large-scale space exploration, but we find the words by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky rather significant; he said: “every being should live and think as if they could achieve everything sooner or later.”

* Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology

 The material is prepared by

V.K. Khanov, D.M. Zuev, А.Т. Lelekov

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